The following special symbols are used in Thai writing.
The repetition character indicates a repetition of the previous word.
Repeated words are often used to add emphasis or intensify the meaning.
The repetition character itself is called ยมก
This appears most famously in the
Thai name of the capitol city which Westerners call Bangkok. The
actual name of the city, the longest place name in the world, is:
||groongM thaehpF maH haaR naH khaawnM aL maawnM ratH dtaL naH go:hM sinR maH hinR thaH raaM yootH thaH yaaM maH haaR diL lohkH phohpH nohpH phaH ratH raatF chaH thaaM neeM booL reeM rohmM ooL dohmM raatF chaH niH waehtF maH haaR saL thaanR aL maawnM phiH maanM aL waH dtaanM saL thitL sakL gaL thatH dtiL yaH witH saL nooH gamM bpraL sitL
Great city of angels, supreme repository of divine gems, great
unconquerable land, grand and prominent realm, royal and
delightful capital city full of nine noble gems, highest royal
residence and grand palace, divine shelter and home of
the reincarnated spirits.
Using the abbreviation symbol, the name is commonly abbreviated as follows:
This symbol is called เปยยาลน้อย
ฯลฯ Et cetera
This symbol is called เปยยาลใหญ่
The silence character is placed over a consonant which is not pronounced. It is frequently used in loanwords (words borrowed from
another language and spelled phonemically with the Thai alphabet) to indicate that the original word had a letter which the Thai do not
pronounce. In the following example, each consonant ร carries the silence marker since there is no final /-r/ phoneme
The silence mark itself is called การันต์
There are also a Thai few words in which the final consonant or vowel (or occasionally even a non final consonant) is silent although not marked with the gaaran; for example,
/ does not have a gaaran for the final consonant ร
. The vowel อิ
/ is silent, so the the word should be
pronounced as shown, not "yaadti." This word also does not contain the gaaran to indicate that the final vowel is silent.
There are other special cases. For example, the consonant cluster ทร
is often treated as a single consonant, thus in the word
/ the gaaran indicates that the last two consonants are both silent.
The Thai currency symbol, used as a prefix on numeric บาท
Known as ฟองมัน
, or informally the "bird's eye" ตาไก่
, this symbol can be used to indicate the beginning
of paragraphs, but is now used only for special poetic or artistic effect.
อฺ Phinthu (พินทุ)
This archaic orthography is nowadays mostly used in dictionaries to disambiguate pronunciation. In our online dictionary
, the symbol, if used, only
appears in a word at the top of its main definition page. The symbol can be used in two ways:
- Placed underneath the first consonant of an orthographic consonant cluster which may in turn be one of three cases:
a. A double-consonant cluster
b. Silent ห, called หอ นำ /haawR namM/
c. Silent อ, called ออ นำ /aawM namM/
- Placed underneath the final-sounding consonant of a syllable.
Both of these rules can be summarizied "more snappily," as Richard Wordingham says, by noting that "Phinthu
indicates that there is no vowel sound
associated with the [marked] consonant." These seemingly vague rules can be puzzling; for clarity, our online dictionary will only place พินทุ
when that consonant is acting in its silent role.
๚ อังคั่นคู่ /angM khanF khuuF/
Indicating the end of a chapter, episode, verse, or section of Thai text. ๚
๛ Khomut (โคมูตร) The End
Used to mark the end of the entire text. ๚ะ๛